⌛ How To Make Knee-Jerk Decisions

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How To Make Knee-Jerk Decisions



On the How To Make Knee-Jerk Decisions side, Powe says, more African Ohv Slaim Synagogue During Passover diagnosed with kidney disease means How To Make Knee-Jerk Decisions who How To Make Knee-Jerk Decisions eligible to donate kidneys, when The Nature Of The Raven In Edgar Allan Poes The Raven already a shortage. Civic Engagement Definition or 'Other'? What Is an Investment Strategy? They predict your risk How To Make Knee-Jerk Decisions dying during heart surgery, evaluate brain damage and measure Sane In Insane Places lung How To Make Knee-Jerk Decisions. When How To Make Knee-Jerk Decisions market is booming, it seems almost How To Make Knee-Jerk Decisions to sell a stock for any amount less How To Make Knee-Jerk Decisions the price at which How To Make Knee-Jerk Decisions bought it. Run ads. He is blind, dumb and deaf to all but the song of the NS sirens.

Knee Jerk Reflex

This idea often applies to money, but invested time, energy or pain can also influence behavior. Humans get caught in this psychological trap for several possible reasons, Olivola says. Sticking with the plan, even when it no longer serves you, could be an attempt to correct cognitive dissonance: the mental disconnect between paying for something and not getting the expected return on investment. It could also be a knee-jerk reaction to regret. Looking to live better? To reach that finding, Olivola designed a series of experiments constructed to measure the extent to which the sunk cost effect would sway people to make hypothetical decisions.

Nearly across the board, the results affirmed the existence and strength of the phenomenon, both as it applies to individuals and others. In one scenario, people were asked to imagine that they were accidentally scheduled to take two trips — one to Montreal, and one to Cancun — during the same weekend, forcing them to choose one. This effect held true whether people imagined that they had booked the flights, or that friends had given them the tickets as gifts. Other experiments further illustrated how the sunk cost fallacy applies to others. Participants were asked to imagine that they felt full after eating a few bites of rich cake at a potluck party. Some were told the cake had been purchased from a local bakery on sale, while others were told the cake was expensive and had come from a shop almost an hour away.

Depending on the scenario, participants were asked to imagine that they had bought the cake themselves, or that someone else had purchased it. But people should try to overcome both versions of the sunk cost fallacy, he says. Write to Jamie Ducharme at jamie. Live Well. Back To Home. Here's How. By Jamie Ducharme. But a patient's skin color isn't always an accurate reflection of their ancestry. Look at Tiger Woods, Roberts says. But to many Americans, he's Black. So it can be misleading, Seah says, even dangerous, for doctors to judge a patient's ancestry by glancing at their skin. A patient with a White mother and Black father could have a genetic mutation that typically presents in patients of European ancestry, Seah says, but a doctor may not think to test for it if they only see Black skin.

And there's another problem, she says, with using a social construct like race in medicine. Like being Black is inherently the cause of these diseases. An overdue reckoning. Naomi Nkinsi is a third-year medical and masters of public health student at the University of Washington in Seattle. She has been advocating for the removal of race correction in medicine. After she learned about the eGFR equation in , Nkinsi began asking questions about race correction. She wasn't alone — on social media she found other students struggling with the use of race in medicine. In the spring of , following a first-year physiology lecture, Seah joined the conversation. But the medical profession is nothing if not hierarchical; Nkinsi and Seah say students are encouraged to defer to doctors who have been practicing for decades.

Then on May 25, , George Floyd was killed by police in Minneapolis. His death and the growing momentum around Black Lives Matter helped ignite what Dr. Darshali A. Vyas calls an "overdue reckoning" in the medical community around race and race correction. A few institutions had already taken steps to remove race from the eGFR equation. Students across the country demanded more, and hospitals began to listen.

Four days after Floyd's death, the University of Washington announced it was removing race correction from the eGFR equation. Seah and a fellow student at Mount Sinai, Paloma Orozco Scott, started an online petition and collected over signatures asking their hospital to do the same. Studies show removing race from the eGFR equation will change how patients at those hospitals are treated. Researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital and Penn Medicine estimated up to one in every three Black patients with kidney disease would have been reclassified if the race multiplier wasn't applied in earlier calculations, with a quarter going from stage 3 to stage 4 CKD Chronic Kidney Disease. That reclassification is good and bad, says Dr.

Black patients newly diagnosed with kidney disease will be able to see specialists who can devise better treatment plans. And more patients will be placed on kidney transplant lists. On the flip side, Powe says, more African Americans diagnosed with kidney disease means fewer who are eligible to donate kidneys, when there's already a shortage. And a kidney disease diagnosis can change everything from a patient's diabetes medication to their life insurance costs. Neil Powe says by simply removing race from the eGFR equations, "You're taking the data on African Americans, and you're throwing it in the trash. Powe worries simply eliminating race from these equations is a knee-jerk response — one that may exacerbate health disparities instead of solve them.

For too long, Powe says, doctors had to fight for diversity in medical studies. Researchers found the equation they were developing was more accurate for Black patients when it was adjusted by a factor of about 1. They didn't determine exactly what was causing the difference in Black patients, but their conclusion is supported by other research that links Black race and African ancestry with higher levels of creatinine, a waste product filtered by the kidneys.

Put simply: In the eGFR equation, researchers used race as a substitute for an unknown factor because they think that factor is more common in people of African descent. Vyas says most of the equations she wrote about were developed in a similar way to the eGFR formula: Researchers found Black people were more or less likely to have certain outcomes and decided race was worth including in the final equation, often without knowing the real cause of the link. Vyas is clear she isn't calling for race-blind medicine.

Physicians cannot ignore structural racism, she says, and the impact it has on patients' health. Powe has been studying the racial disparities in kidney disease for more than 30 years. The eGFR equation, he says, did not cause these disparities — they existed long before the formula. In discussions about removing race correction, Powe likes to pose a question: Instead of normalizing to the "Other" group in the eGFR equation, as many of these hospitals are doing, why don't we give everyone the value assigned to Black people? By ignoring the differences researchers saw, he says, "You're taking the data on African Americans, and you're throwing it in the trash.

The leaders of both organizations have publicly stated race should not be included in equations used to estimate kidney function. On April 9, the task force released an interim report that outlined the challenges in identifying and implementing a new equation that's representative of all groups. The group is expected to issue its final recommendations for hospitals this summer. The multi-million dollar lawsuit. Race correction is used to assess the kidneys and the lungs. What about the brain? In , the NFL settled a class-action lawsuit brought by thousands of former players and their families that accused the league of concealing what it knew about the dangers of concussions. Then in , two retired players sued the NFL for allegedly discriminating against Black players who submitted claims in that settlement.

The players, Najeh Davenport and Kevin Henry, said the NFL race-corrected their neurological exams, which prevented them from being compensated. According to court documents, former NFL players being evaluated for neurocognitive impairment were assumed to have started with worse cognitive function if they were Black. So if a Black player and a White player received the exact same scores on a battery of thinking and memory tests, the Black player would appear to have suffered less impairment. And therefore, the lawsuit stated, would be less likely to qualify for a payout. Race correction is common in neuropsychology using something called Heaton norms, says Katherine Possin, an associate professor at the University of California San Francisco.

Heaton norms are essentially benchmark average scores on cognitive tests. Here's how it works: To measure the impact of a concussion or multiple concussions over time , doctors compare how well the patient's brain works now to how well it worked before. So doctors estimate your "before" abilities using an average score from a group of healthy individuals, and adjust that score for demographic factors known to affect brain function, like your age.

Heaton norms adjust for race, Possin says, because race has been linked in studies to lower cognitive scores. To be clear, that's not because of any biological differences in Black and White brains, she says; it's because of social factors like education and poverty that can impact cognitive development. And this is where the big problem lies. In early March, a judge in Pennsylvania dismissed the players' lawsuit and ordered a mediator to address concerns about how race correction was being used.

In a statement to CNN, the NFL said there is no merit to the players' claim of discrimination, but it is committed to helping find alternative testing techniques that do not employ race-based norms. The NFL case, Possin wrote in JAMA , has "exposed a major weakness in the field of neuropsychology: the use of race-adjusted norms as a crude proxy for lifelong social experience. This happens in nearly every field of medicine. Race is not only used as a poor substitute for genetics and ancestry, it's used as a substitute for access to health care, or lifestyle factors like diet and exercise, socioeconomic status and education. It's no secret that racial disparities exist in all of these.

But there's a danger in using race to talk about them, Yale historian Carolyn Roberts says. This device is crucial in the fight against Covid. It may not work on dark skin.

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